Editorial preamble (from Prof. Henry Bauer):

  1. Many or most of these books are written by insiders who know at first hand whereof they speak.
  2. These whistle-blowers are often ostracized by the majority of their professional peers.
  3. This plethora of exposés has not led to needed reforms.
  4. Most of these books have been published since about 2000 — the situation is getting worse, and quite rapidly.


Books / Science in General

Holster, Andrew, The Death of Science. 2016.  Building from The Twilight of the Scientific Age, below, Andrew Holster writes engagingly about the serious problems afflicting the modern scientific enterprise.

Lopez Corredoira, Martin.  The Twilight of the Scientific Age. Brown Walker Press, Boca Raton FL The Twilight of the Scientific Age. Martin Lopez Corredoira, Brown Walker Press, Boca Raton FL, 2013.  A popular, engaging and insightful book on the underlying reasons why science has seen better days.

Braben, Don. Promoting the Planck Club 2014  Dealing with the conditions necessary for creative scientists to achieve success, and how that might be accomplished today.

Bauer, Henry H. Dogmatism in Science and Medicine: How Dominant Theories Monopolize Research and Stifle the Search for Truth. McFarland, 2012

Charlton, Bruce G. Not Even Trying: The Corruption of Real Science. University of Buckingham Press, 2012

Union of Concerned Scientists. Heads They Win, Tails We Lose: How Corporations Corrupt Science at the Public’s Expense. UCS Publications, 2012

Mirowski, Philip. Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science. Harvard University Press, 2011

Radder, Hans (ed.). The Commodification of Academic Research: Science and the Modern University. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010.

Corredoira, Martín Lopez & Carlos Castro Perelman (eds.). Against the Tide: A Critical Review by Scientists of How Physics and Astronomy Get Done. Universal Publishers, 2008

Kabat, Geoffrey C. Hyping Health Risks: Environmental Hazards in Daily Life and the Science of Epidemiology. Columbia University Press, 2008

Michaels, David. Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on Science Threatens Your Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008

Greenberg, Daniel S. Science for Sale: The Perils, Rewards, and Delusions of Campus Capitalism. University of Chicago Press, 2007

Giroux, Henry A. The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex. Paradigm, 2007

Pielke, Roger A. Jr. The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. Cambridge University Press, 2007

Washburn, Jennifer. University, Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of American Higher Education. Basic Books, 2005

Bok, Derek. Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education. Princeton University Press, 2003

Krimsky, Sheldon. Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research? Rowman & Littlefield, 2003

Hook, Ernest B. (ed). Prematurity in Scientific Discovery: On Resistance and Neglect. University of California Press, 2002

Bauer, Henry H. Fatal Attractions: The Troubles With Science. Paraview Press, 2001

Greenberg, Daniel S. Science, Money and Politics: Political Triumph and Ethical Erosion. University of Chicago Press, 2001

Stark, Andrew. Conflict of Interest in American Public Life. Harvard University Press, 2000

White, Geoffrey W. & Flannery C. Hauck (eds.). Campus, Inc.: Corporate Power in the Ivory Tower. Prometheus, 2000

Raup, David M. The Nemesis Affair: A Story of the Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science. Norton, 1999

Weisbrod, Burton A. (ed.). To Profit or Not to Profit: The Commercial Transformation of the Non-Profit Sector. Cambridge University Press, 1998

Levinson, Ralph, & Jeff Thomas (eds.,) Science Today: Problem or Crisis? Routledge, 1997

Slaughter, Sheila, & Larry L. Leslie. Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies and the   Entrepreneurial University. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997

Soley, Lawrence C. Leasing the Ivory Tower: The Corporate Takeover of Academia.
South End Press, 1995

Ziman, John. Prometheus Bound: Science in a Dynamic Steady State. Cambridge University Press, 1994

Appleyard, Bryan. Understanding the Present: Science and the Soul of Modern Man. Pan Books, 1992; Doubleday, 1993

Bauer, Henry H. Scientific Literacy and Myth of the Scientific Method. University of Illinois Press, 1992

Schechter, Bruce. The Path of No Resistance: The Story of the Revolution in Superconductivity. Touchstone, 1990

Glashow, Sheldon, with Ben Bova. Interactions: A Journey through the Mind of a Particle Physicist and the Matter of the World. Warner, 1988  

Goldberg, Jeff. Anatomy of a Scientific Discovery. Bantam, 1988

Snyder, Solomon H. Brainstorming: The Science and Politics of Opiate Research. Harvard University Press, 1989

Teitelman, Robert. Gene Dreams: Wall Street, Academia, and the Rise of Biotechnology. Basic, 1989

Hazen, Robert M. The Breakthrough: The Race for the Superconductor. Summit, 1988

Hull, David L. Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. University of Chicago Press, 1988

Levinthal, Charles E. Messengers of Paradise: Opiates and the Brain. Anchor/Doubleday, 1988

Angier, Natalie. Natural Obsessions: The Search for the Oncogene. Houghton Mifflin, 1987

Burnham, John C. How Superstition Won and Science Lost. Rutgers University Press, 1987

Hall, Stephen S. Invisible Frontiers: The Race to Synthesize a Human Gene. Atlantic Monthly, 1987

Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Simon & Schuster, 1987

Regis, Ed . Who Got Einstein’s Office: Eccentricity and Genius at the Institute for Advanced Study. Addison-Wesley, 1987

Kanigel, Robert. Apprentice to Genius: The Making of a Scientific Dynasty. Macmillan, 1986

Taubes, Gary. Nobel Dreams: Power, Deceit, and the Ultimate Experiment. Random House, 1986

Clark, David H. The Quest for SS433. Viking, 1985

Broad, William, & Nicholas Wade, Betrayers of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science. Simon & Schuster, 1982

Wade, Nicholas. The Nobel Duel: Two Scientists’ 21-Year Race to Win the World’s Most Coveted research Prize. Doubleday, 1981

Kidder, Tracy. The Soul of a New Machine. Little, Brown, 1981

Watson, James D. The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. Atheneum, 1968 (a very useful annotated edition including commentaries, reviews, and original articles was edited by Gunther Stent, W. W. Norton 1980)

Barzun, Jacques. Science: The Glorious Entertainmen. Harper & Row, 1964

Standen, Anthony. Science is a Sacred Cow. E. P. Dutton, 1950


Books / Medical Science


Frances, Allen. Saving Normal: An Insider’s Revolt Against Out-of-Control Psychiatric Diagnosis, DSM-5, Big Pharma, and the Medicalization of Ordinary Life. William Morrow, 2013

Goldacre, Ben. Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients. Faber & Faber, 2013

Gøtzsche, Peter C. Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How Big Pharma Has Corrupted Healthcare. Oxford & New York: Radcliffe, 2013

Gøtzsche, Peter C.  Mammography Screening: Truth. Lies and Controversy. Oxford & New York: Radcliffe, 2012

Healy, David. Pharmageddon. University of California Press, 2012

Welch, H. Gilbert, Lisa Schwartz, & Steve Woloshin. Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health. Beacon Press, 2012

Alison Mack, Erin Balogh, & Christine Micheel, rapporteurs. Perspectives on Biomarker and Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Discussion Forum Summary. Institute of Medicine;; National Academies Press, 2011

Diller, Lawrence H. Remembering Ritalin: A Doctor and Generation Rx Reflect on Life and Psychiatric Drugs. Perigee Trade, 2011

Christine M. Micheel & John R. Ball, eds.  Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease. Institute of Medicine;; National Academies Press, 2010

Carlat, Daniel. Unhinged: The Trouble with Psychiatry — A Doctor’s Revelations about a Profession in Crisis. Free Press, 2010

Greenberg, Gary. Manufacturing Depression: The Secret History of a Modern Disease. Simon & Schuster, 2010

Kirsch, Irving. The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Anti-Depressant Myth. Basic Books, 2010

Virapen, John. Side Effects: Death. Confessions of a Pharma-Insider., 2010

Watters, Ethan. Crazy Like Us: The Globalization of the American Psyche. Free Press, 2010

Whitaker, Robert. Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill. Basic Books, 2010 (2nd ed.)

Whitaker, Robert. Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America. Crown, 2010

Moncrieff, Joanna. The Myth of the Chemical Cure: A Critique of Psychiatric Drug Treatment. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 (revised ed.)

Petersen, Melody. Our Daily Meds: How the Pharmaceutical Companies Transformed Themselves into Slick Marketing Machines and Hooked the Nation on Prescription Drugs. Picador, 2009

Petryna, Adriana. When Experiments Travel: Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects. Princeton University Press, 2009

Seaman, Barbara. The Greatest Experiment Ever Performed On Women: Exploding the Estrogen Myth. Hyperion, 2003; Seven Stories Press(2nd ed), 2009

Bass, Alison. Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and a Bestselling Antidepressant on Trial. Algonquin Books, 2008

Breggin, Peter. Medication Madness: A Psychiatrist Exposes the Dangers of Mood-Altering Medications. St. Martin’s Press, 2008

Lane, Christopher. Shyness: How Normal Behavior Became a Sickness. Yale University Press, 2008

Brownlee, Shannon. Overtreated: Why Too Much Medicine Is Making Us Sicker and Poorer. Bloomsbury, 2007

Conrad, Peter. The Medicalization of Society: On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007

Greene, Jeremy. Prescribing by Numbers: Drugs and the Definition of Disease. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007

Horwitz, Allan V., Jerome C. Wakefield, & Robert L. Spitzer. The Loss of Sadness: How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow into Depressive Disorder. Oxford University Press, 2007

Pearce, Neil. Adverse Reactions: The Fenoterol Story. Auckland (NZ): Auckland University Press, 2007

Relman, Arnold. A Second Opinion: Rescuing America’s Health Care. PublicAffairs, 2007

Brody, Howard. Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Rowman & Littlefield, 2006

Diller, Lawrence H. The Last Normal Child: Essays on the Intersection of Kids, Culture, and Psychiatric Drugs. Praeger, 2006

Healy, David. Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship Between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Depression. NYU Press, 2006

Mahar, Maggie. Money Driven Medicine: The Real Reason Health Care Costs So Much. Collins, 2006

Rost, Peter. The Whistleblower: Confessions of a Healthcare Hitman. New York: Soft Skull Press, 2006

Smith, Richard. The Trouble with Medical Journals. CRC Press (Taylor & Francis, now Informa), 2006

Welch, H. Gilbert. Should I Be Tested for Cancer?: Maybe Not and Here’s Why. University of California Press, 2006

Critser, Greg. Generation Rx: How Prescription Drugs Are Altering American Lives, Minds, and Bodies. Houghton Mifflin, 2005

Deyo, Richard A. & Donald L. Patrick. Hope or Hype: The Obsession with Medical Advances and the High Cost of False Promises. AMACOM (American Management Association), 2005

Moynihan, Ray & Alan Cassels. Selling Sickness: How the World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All Into Patients. Nation Books, 2005

Abramson, John. Overdo$ed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine. HarperCollins, 2004

Angell, Marcia. The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What To Do About It. Random House, 2004

Avorn, Jerry. Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. Knopf, 2004

Barlett, Donald L. & James B. Steele. Critical Condition: How Health Care in America Became Big Business — and Bad Medicine. Doubleday, 2004

Goozner, Merrill. The $800 Million Pill: The Truth behind the Cost of New Drugs. University of California Press, 2004

Hadler, Nortin M. The Last Well Person: How to Stay Well Despite the Health-Care System. McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2004

Kassirer, Jerome. On The Take: How Medicine’s Complicity with Big Business Can Endanger Your Health. Oxford University Press, 2004

Medawar, Charles & Anita Hardon. Medicines Out of Control?: Antidepressants and the Conspiracy of Goodwill. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publishers, 2004

O’Brien, Lawrence J. Bad Medicine: How the American Medical Establishment Is Ruining Our Healthcare System. Prometheus, 2004

Elliott, Carl. Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream. W.W. Norton, 2003

Horwitz, Allan V. Creating Mental Illness. University of Chicago Press, 2003

Healy, David. The Creation of Psychopharmacology. Harvard University Press, 2002

Glenmullen, Joseph. Prozac Backlash: Overcoming the Dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and Other Antidepressants with Safe, Effective Alternatives. Simon & Schuster, 2001

Stephens, Trent & Rock Brynner. Dark Remedy: The Impact of Thalidomide and Its Revival as a Vital Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 2001

Mundy, Alicia. Dispensing with the Truth: The Victims, the Drug Companies, and the Dramatic Story behind the Battle over Fen-Phen. St. Martin’s Press, 2001

Lundberg George D., with James Stacey. Severed Trust : Why American Medicine Hasn’t Been Fixed. Basic Books, 2000

Ravnskov, U. The Cholesterol Myths.New Trends Publishing, 2000

Abraham, John, & Julie Sheppard. The Therapeutic Nightmare. Earthscan (UK), 1999

Diller, Lawrence H. Running on Ritalin: A Physician Reflects on Children, Society, and Performance in a Pill. Bantam, 1999

Moore, Thomas J. Prescription for Disaster: the Hidden Dangers in Your Medicine Cabinet. Simon & Schuster, 1998

Millenson, Michael L. Demanding Medical Excellence: Doctors and Accountability in the Information Age. University of Chicago Press, 1997

Caplan, Paula J. They Say You’re Crazy: How The World’s Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who’s Normal. Da Capo Press, 1996

Abraham, John. Science, Politics, and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Controversy and Bias in Drug Regulation. St. Martin’s Press, 1995

Moore, Thomas J. Deadly Medicine: Why Tens of Thousands of Heart Patients Died in America’s Worst Drug Disaster. Simon & Schuster, 1995

Werth, Barry. The Billion-Dollar Molecule. Simon & Schuster, 1994

Rodwin, Marc A .Medicine, Money and Morals: Physicians’ Conflicts of Interest. Oxford University Press, 1993

Porter, Roger J. & Thomas E. Malone. Biomedical Research: Collaboration and Conflict of Interest. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992

Silverman, Milton, Mia Lydecker & Philip Lee. Bad Medicine: The Prescription Drug Industry in the Third World. Stanford University Press, 1992

Ellis, Albert. Why Some Therapies Don’t Work. Prometheus, 1989

Adams, Stanley. Roche versus Adams. Jonathan Cape, 1984

Braithwaite, John. Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Routledge, 1984/2012

Yoxen, Edward. The Gene Business. Harper & Row, 1983

Kenney, Martin. Biotechnology: The University-Industrial Complex. Yale University Press, 1986

Silverman, Milton, Philip R. Lee, & Mia Lydecker. Prescriptions for Death : The Drugging of the Third World. University of California Press, 1982

Silverman, Milton Morris. The Drugging of the Americas: How Multinational Drug Companies Say One Thing about Their Products to Physicians in the United States, and Another Thing to Physicians in Latin America. University of California Press, 1976


Articles, Blogs, Posts

Articles, Blogs, Posts / Science in General

An NPR interview dealing with the impediments faced by scientists pursuing unconventional approaches. A pungent critique of today’s science enterprise.

Evidence for the decline of investment in fundamental science.

A revealing interview with Nobelist Sydney Brenner on the status of the current scientific enterprise.

An amusing (and telling) foray into issues of publishing scientific results. Would be hilarious if not accurate.

A critique of the scientific enterprise from former NIH Director and Nobel laureate Harold Varmus and several other scientific leaders.

Bauer, Henry H. The Science Bubble. EdgeScience, #17, February 2014, 3-6

Bauer, Henry H. Three stages of modern science. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 27 (2013) 505-13

Schekman, Randy. How journals like Nature, Cell and Science are damaging science. The Guardian, 9 December 2013

Fischman, Josh. Fake peer reviews, the latest from of scientific fraud, fool journals. Chronicle of Higher Education online, 30 September 2012

Krimsky, Sheldon. Do financial conflicts of interest bias research? An inquiry into the ‘‘funding effect’’ hypothesis. Science, Technology, & Human Values, (20 Sptember 2012) 1-22; doi: 10.1177/016224391245627

Nicholson, Joshua M. Collegiality and careerism trump critical questions and bold new ideas: A student’s perspective and solution — The structure of scientific funding limits bold new ideas. BioEssays, 34 (2012) 448-50

Nicholson, Joshua M. & John P. A. Ioannidis. Conform and be funded. Nature, 492 (2012) 34-6

Steinhauser, Georg, et al. Peer review versus editorial review and their role in innovative science. Theoretical medicine and bioethics, 33 (2012) 359-76

Ioannidis, John P. A. Fund people not projects. Nature, 477 (2011) 529-31

Slow-Science Academy. The slow science manifesto (2010). 

Smith, Richard. Classical peer review: an empty gun. Breast Cancer Research, 12 (suppl. 4, 2010) S13

Begley, Sharon. On Second Thought … Scientists are supposed to change their minds when evidence undercuts their views. Dream on. Newsweek, 12 January 2009

Fanelli, Daniele. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoSONE, 4 (2009) e5738 (11 pp.)

Lawrence, Peter A. Real lives and white lies in the funding of scientific research: The granting system turns young scientists into bureaucrats and then betrays them. PLoSBiology, 7 (#9, 2009) e1000197

Robert Bosch Stiftung [Foundation]. Fälschung, Täuschung, Titelkauf — Wie sichert die Wissenschaft Qualität unde Vertrauen? [Faking, deceiving, unearned authorship — How can science safeguard quality ands trustworthiness?]. 4th Berlin Smeinar, 25 November 2009

Charlton, Bruce G. Zombie science: A sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest. Medical Hypotheses, 71 (2008) 327-9

Titus, Sandra L., James A. Wells and Lawrence J. Rhoades. Repairing research integrity. Nature, 453 (2008) 980-2

Wolinsky, Howard. Paths to acceptance — The advancement of scientific knowledge is an uphill struggle against ‘accepted wisdom’. EMBO Reports, 9 (2008) 416-8

Young, Neal S., John P. A. Ioannidis & Omar Al-Ubaydli. Why current publication practices may distort science. PLoSMedicine, 5 (#10, 2008) e201

Lawrence, Peter A. The mismeasurement of science. Current Biology, 17 (2007) R583-5.

Martinson, Brian C. Universities and the money fix. Nature, 449 (2007) 141-2

Miller, Donald W. Jr. The government grant system — Inhibitor of truth and innovation? Journal of Information Ethics, 16 (2007) 59-69.

Ioannidis, John P. A. Why most published research findings are false. PLoSMedicine, 2 (#8, 2005) e124

Martinson, Brian C., Melissa S. Anderson & Raymond de Vries. Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435 (2005) 737-8

Pollack, G. H. Revitalizing science in a risk-averse culture: reflections on the syndrome and prescriptions for its cure. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 51 (2005) 815-820

Crichton, Michael. Aliens cause global warming. Caltech Michelin Lecture, 17 January 2003; also in Three Speeches by Michael Crichton.

Lawrence, Peter A. The politics of publication — Authors, reviewers and editors must act to protect the quality of research. Nature, 422 (2003) 259-61

Klein, J. Hegemony of mediocrity in contemporary sciences, particularly iin immunology. Lymphology, 18 (1985) 122-31

Muller, Richard A. Innovation and scientific funding. Science, 209 (1980): 880883

Stent, Gunther. Prematurity and uniqueness in scientific discovery. Scientific American, December 1972, 84-93

Weinberg, Alvin M. Science and trans-science. Minerva, X (1972) 209-222

Kantrowitz, Arthur. Proposal for an Institution for Scientific Judgment, Science, 153 (1967) 763; see Jon R. Cavicchi, The Science Court: A bibliography

Barber, Bernard. Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134 (1961) 596-602
(see also Hook in BOOKS)


Articles, Blogs, Posts / Medical Science

Bauer, Henry H. Seeking Immortality? Challenging the drug-based medical paradigm. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 26 (2012) 867-80

Bauer, Henry H. Know your numbers—at your peril. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25 (2011) 555-62 (essay review of Jeremy A. Greene, Prescribing by Numbers: Drugs and the Definition of Disease)

Ioannidis, John P. A. & Orestis A. Panagiotou. Comparison of effect sizes associated with biomarkers reported in highly cited individual articles and in subsequent meta-analyses. JAMA, 305 (2011) 2200-10

Järvinen, T. L., H. Sievänen, P. Kannus, J. Jokihaara & K. M. Khan. The true cost of pharmacological disease prevention. British Medical Journal, 342 (2011) doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2175

Moynihan, Ray. Surrogates under scrutiny: fallible correlations, fatal consequences. British Medical Journal, 343 (2011) doi: 10.1136/bmj.d5160

Nieuwenhuis, Sander, Birte U Forstmann & Eric-Jan Wagenmakers. Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance. Nature Neuroscience, 14 (2011) 1105-7

Anon. Do statins have a role in primary prevention? An update. Therapeutics Newsletter, #77, March-April 2010

McGauran, Natalie, Beate Wieseler, Julia Kreis, Yvonne-Beatrice Schüler, Heike Kölsch & Thomas Kaiser. Review Reporting bias in medical research – a narrative review. Trials, 11 (2010) 37 (15pp.)

Schriger, D. L. & D. G. Altman. Inadequate post-publication review of medical research. British Medical Journal, 341 (2010) doi: 10.1136/bmj.c3803

Angell, Marcia. Drug companies & doctors: A story of corruption. New York Review of Books, 56 (15 January 2009) 

Radley, David C., Stan N. Finkelstein & Randall S. Stafford. Off-label prescribing among office-based physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166 (2006) 1021-6

Rose, Nikolas. Disorders without borders? the expanding scope of psychiatric practice. Biosocieties, 1 (2006) 465-84

Ioannidis, John P. A. Contradicted and initially stronger effects in highly cited clinical research. JAMA, 294 (2005) 218-228

Ashburn, Ted T. & Karl B. Thor. Drug repositioning: Identifying and developing new uses for existing drugs. Nature Reviews — Drug Discovery, 3 (2004) 673-83

Rethinking Risk and the Precautionary Principle, Butterworth, 2000

Willman, David. How a new policy led to seven deadly drugs. Los Angeles Times, 20 December 2000

Matthews, R. A. J. Significance levels for the assessment of anomalous phenomena. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 13 (1999) 1-7

Bland, J. M. & D. G. Altman. Bayesians and frequentists. British Medical Journal, 317 (1998) 1151-60

Greenland, Sander. Probability logic and probabilistic induction. Epidemiology, 9 (1998) 322-32

Matthews, R. A. J. Facts versus factions: The use and abuse of subjectivity in scientific research. European Science and Environment Forum Working Paper, 1998; reprinted (pp. 247-82) in J. Morris (ed.),

Altman, Douglas G. & J. Martin Bland. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. British Medical Journal, 311 (1995) 485

Altman, D. G. The scandal of poor medical research. British Medical Journal, 308 (1994) 2831